In marketing terms the ‘Four P’s’ are a timeless classic, to which we can now confidently add a fifth P (as if it wasn’t always already there) with the addition of Psychology (or personalisation), because that is becoming the core marketing tactic.
Knowing your target market’s predilections, habits and having a robust, valued interaction with them is the new nirvana for marketing practice. But the four (or five) P’s won’t get you there alone, because marketing, technology and content are now inextricably linked.
So to assist you in your quest to keep pace with the language that can permeate a conversation about producing or delivering content, measuring content associated data or using content to reach and engage with your target, I offer a brief glossary of terms which have infiltrated the marketing vernacular.
These terms may seem tech-centric but they will be relevant to those of you who are creating and producing content, distributing content, trying to advertise in content, participate in IOE device initiatives, measure audience reception or even participating in the global gaming phenomenon, where latency, packet loss and lag are paramount concerns.
Hopefully this guide might help you navigate the diverse landscape of acronyms and tactical alternatives that await you in your practice of marketing.
3G, 4G, 5G
3rd, 4th, and 5th generation cellular technologies, respectively. In simple terms, 3G represents the introduction of the smartphone along with their mobile web browsers; 4G, the current generation cellular technology, delivers true broadband internet access to mobile devices; the coming 5G cellular technologies will deliver massive bandwidth and reduced latency to cellular systems, supporting a range of devices from smartphones to autonomous vehicles and large-scale IoT. Infrastructure edge computing is considered a key building block for 5G.
A network that connects subscribers and devices to their local service provider. It is contrasted with the core network which connects service providers to one another. The access network connects directly to the infrastructure edge.
CDC (Centralized Data Center)
A large, often hyperscale physical structure and logical entity which houses large compute, data storage and network resources which are typically used by many tenants concurrently due to their scale. Located a significant geographical distance from the majority of their users and often used for cloud computing.
A system to provide on-demand access to a shared pool of computing resources, including network servers, storage, and computation services. Typically utilises a small number of large centralized data centers and regional data centers today.
CDN (Content Delivery Network)
A distributed system positioned throughout the network that positions popular content such as streaming video at locations closer to the user than are possible with a traditional centralized data center. Unlike a data center, a CDN node will typically contain data storage without dense compute resources. When using infrastructure edge computing CDN nodes operate in software at edge data centers.
The layer of the service provider network which connects the access network and the devices connected to it to other network operators and service providers, such that data can be transmitted to and from the internet or to and from other networks. May be multiple hops away from infrastructure edge computing resources.
CPE (Customer-Premises Equipment)
The local piece of equipment such as a cable network modem, which allows the subscriber to a network service to connect to the access network of the service provider. Typically one hop away from infrastructure edge computing resources.
CPM (Cost Per Mile or cost per thousand) is the cost for every 1,000th impression when you are buying ad impressions. eCPM (effective Cost Per Mile) is the cost for every 1,000th ad impression, regardless of what buying method are being used (fixed price, CPM, CPC, CPA or CPO). The main difference between CPM and eCPM is the data you use to calculate it.
CPC – (Cost Per Click) refers to the actual price you pay for each click in your PPC (pay-per-click)
CPA – (Cost Per Action) allows an advertiser to pay for a specified action from a prospective customer.
CPO – Cost Per Order) is the total cost of your marketing campaign divided by the number of orders received for the campaign. The CPO is used to determine the cost spent to acquire a customer.
The concept that data is not free to move over a network and that the cost and difficulty of doing so increases as both the volume of data and the distance between network endpoints grows, and that applications will gravitate to where their data is located. Observed with applications requiring large-scale data ingest.
The use of intelligent analysis of raw data to produce a recommendation, which is meaningful to a human operator. An example is processing masses of sensor data from IoT devices within the infrastructure edge to produce a single statement that is interpreted by and meaningful to a human operator or higher automated system.
The delivery of computing capabilities to the logical extremes of a network in order to improve the performance, operating cost and reliability of applications and services. By shortening the distance between devices and the cloud resources that serve them, and also reducing network hops, edge computing mitigates the latency and bandwidth constraints of today’s Internet, ushering in new classes of applications. In practical terms, this means distributing new resources and software stacks along the path between today’s centralized data centers and the increasingly large number of devices in the field, concentrated, in particular, but not exclusively, in close proximity to the last mile network, on both the infrastructure and device sides.
A compute node, such as an individual server or other set of computing resources, operated as part of an edge computing infrastructure. Typically resides within an edge data center operating at the infrastructure edge, and is therefore physically closer to its intended users than a cloud node in a centralized data center.
A distributed computing concept where compute and data storage resource, as well as applications and their data, are positioned in the most optimal place between the user and Cloud with the goal of improving performance and redundancy. Fog computing workloads may be run across the gradient of compute and data storage resource from Cloud to the infrastructure edge. The term fog computing was originally coined by Cisco. Can utilize centralized, regional and edge data centers.
Edge computing capability, typically in the form of one or more edge data centers, which is deployed on the operator side of the last mile network. Compute, data storage and network resources positioned at the infrastructure edge allow for cloud-like capabilities similar to those found in centralized data centers such as the elastic allocation of resources, but with lower latency and lower data transport costs due to a higher degree of locality to user than with a centralized or regional data center.
The use of compute, data storage and network resources at a layer beyond the infrastructure edge to separate and route network data received from the cellular network RAN. Although it does not provide the improved user experience of local breakout, IP aggregation can improve performance and network utilization when compared to traditional cellular network architectures.
The variation in network data transmission latency observed over a period of time. Measured in terms of milliseconds as a range from the lowest to highest observed latency values which are recorded over the measurement period. A key metric for real-time applications such as VoIP, autonomous driving and online gaming which assume little latency variation is present and are sensitive to changes in this metric.
The segment of a telecommunications network that connects the service provider to the customer. The type of connection and distance between the customer and the infrastructure determines the performance and services available to the customer. The last mile is part of the access network, and is also the network segment closest to the user that is within the control of the service provider. Examples of this include cabling from a DOCSIS headend site to a cable modem, or the wireless connection between a customer’s mobile device and a cellular network site.
In the context of network data transmission, the time taken by a unit of data (typically a frame or packet) to travel from its originating device to its intended destination. Measured in terms of milliseconds at single or repeated points in time between two or more endpoints. A key metric of optimizing the modern application user experience. Distinct from jitter, which refers to the variation of latency over time. Sometimes expressed as Round Trip Time (RTT).
MM&E (Marketing, Media & Entertainment)
An acronym to describe three melded industries.
Modular Data Centre (MDC)
A method of data centre deployment, which is designed for portability. High-performance compute, data storage and network capability is installed within a portable structure such as a shipping container which can then be transported to where it is required. These data centres can be combined with existing data centres or other modular data centres to increase the local resources available as required.
Native advertising is a form of paid media where the ad experience follows the natural form and function of the user experience in which it is placed. The ad is placed in context or in situ to the product category, use or experience ie. the ad is placed in relevant environment. Product placement (embedded marketing) is a precursor to native advertising.
PMP (Private Marketplace)
A Private Marketplace (PMP) is an invitation-only RTB (Real Time Bidding) auction environment for digital and programmatic advertising that leverages publishers’ online ad inventory, typically to a select number of advertisers. Publishers invite a select number of buyers to bid on its inventory. Inventory purchased is transparent – the buyer knows exactly which site the ad will run on. a real-time bidding (RTB), invitation-only, inventory is bought and sold at an impression level and is a one-on-one deal between publisher and buyer, facilitated through a private marketplace. It allows publishers to monetize their inventory more efficiently and place rules around who can purchase impressions. More info here.
POP (Point of Presence)
A point in their network infrastructure where a service provider allows connectivity to their network by users or partners. In the context of edge computing, in many cases a PoP will be within an edge meet me room if an IXP is not within the local area. The edge data center would connect to a PoP, which then connects to an IXP.
Programmatic media buying, marketing and advertising is the algorithmic purchase and sale of advertising space in real time. During this process, software is used to automate the buying, placement, and optimisation of media inventory via a bidding system.
Quality of Experience (QoE)
The advanced use of QoS principles to perform more detailed and nuanced measurements of application and network performance with the goal of further improving the user experience of the application and network. Also refers to systems which will proactively measure performance and adjust configuration or load balancing as required. Can therefore be considered a component of workload orchestration, operating as a high-fidelity data source for an intelligent orchestrator.
Quality of Service (QoS)
A measure of how well the network and data center infrastructure is serving a particular application, often to a specific user. Throughput, latency and jitter are all key QoS measurement metrics which edge computing seeks to improve for many different types of application, from realtime to bulk data transfer use cases.
RAN (Radio Access Network)
A wireless variant of the access network, typically referring to a cellular network such as 3G, 4G or 5G. The 5G RAN will be supported by compute, data storage and network resources at the infrastructure edge as it utilises NFV and C-RAN.